History and terminologyEdit
B. P. Wiesner and Robert H. Thouless first proposed the term "psi" in 1942 as a more general term to include both extrasensory perception and psychokinesis. The original terminology proposal divided psi into psi-gamma, for cases of cognition, and psi-kappa, for cases of action. These terms were later modified into "passive psi" and "active psi".
In 1952, John W. Campbell proposed the term "psionics", from psi (‘psyche’) and the ending -onics from electronics (machine), which implied that the paranormal powers of the mind could be made to work reliably.
It is often used to endow science fictional characters with abilities, which, if they were called "magic", would make the story fantasy. Psionics usually appear in science fiction or contemporary settings, although it is sometimes seen in medieval fantasy as well (mostly in role-playing games), sometimes with both magic and psionics existing side by side as two distinct phenomena.
The most widely utilized psionic ability in fiction is telepathy, which is often attributed to magical or highly technologically or mentally advanced cultures. As an example, the Vulcans from Star Trek were given limited telepathic abilities in order to make them appear more otherworldly. Psionic abilities are often displayed by beings who do or are in process of transcending their physical existence (such as humankind, in the science fiction classic Childhood's End).
- In Robert A. Heinlein's 1961 novel Stranger in a Strange Land, humans are able to utilise many psionic-like abilities by learning the Martian language and adopting a more Martian mindset.
- Telekinesis and precognition, as exhibited by the Jedi in Star Wars for example, are also quite common in fictional examples of psionics.
- In the science fiction TV show Babylon 5, human telepaths are organized into an organization known as the Psi Corps.
- In the anime Akira (and the manga it is based on), psionic powers are a main subject. A secret research project of the Japanese military results in the creation of several psionically gifted children.
- In the strategy game StarCraft, psionics play an important role in explaining many of the abilities and powers of special units and aliens in the game. It is also the backbone of how a main plot element works.
- Many of H.P. Lovecraft's stories allude to psionic abilities such as in the residents of K'n-yan. This power often manifests itself in his stories as the ability of powerful creatures such as Cthulhu to induce madness as a sort of overwhelming telepathy in the minds of those who approach him.
- In the Earthbound series, psionics plays a major role. Many of the protagonists utilize psionics as an ultimate secondary ability. This consists elemental PSI, status-dealing PSI, Recover PSI, etc. The protagonists – Ninten and Ana in Mother; Ness, Paula, and Poo in Earthbound; and Lucas, Claus and Kumatora in Mother 3 – are known to utilize psionics.
- In the Talents universe, encompassing two book series written by Anne McCaffrey, conclusive proof of psionic abilities leads to those possessing them, dubbed "Talents", using their abilities as paid employees providing various services for mankind. Of particular note are Talents with such high psionic potential that, combined with the ability to tap into generated power sources to enhance their abilities, they can telekinetically move objects and telepathically communicate instantaneously across interstellar distances. With the aid of these "Prime" Talents, humanity moves forward to colonize other planets and star systems without developing technological means of interstellar travel.
- Psionic abilities (under the name "metapsychic abilities") are widespread in Julian May's Saga of Pliocene Exile and Galactic Milieu Series among both humans and the nonhuman species of the Milieu; many of the stories' protagonists have powerful psionic abilities. The various powers are classified into five types: creativity (creation and transmutation of matter and energy), psychokinesis, farsensing (ESP), coercion (mind control) and redaction (mental and physical healing).
- In the Bionicle universe, Psionics is an Elemental Power, which can be harnessed by Toa, Ce-Matoran (its prefix "Ce-" derived from the words "cerebral" and "cerebellum", words relating to the anatomy of the brain), Makuta, and various other beings.
- In the film Resident Evil: Extinction, Alice uses multiple psionic abilities she acquired from mutation with the T-Virus. Umbrella Corporation's computers monitor psionic incidents and track down Project Alice from their locations.
- Psionic abilities are common in the Avery Cates series by Jeff Somers, with several types including telekinesis, mind control (called "pushing"), and limited precognition.
Role-playing and other gamesEdit
- Main article: Psionics (role-playing games)
Psionics are used in a wide variety of role-playing games, often as a substitute for magic. In Tolkienesque fantasy games with a magic system already in place, such as Dungeons and Dragons, psionics are often introduced to provide an alternative system that functions differently from existing magic systems. The first role-playing game to use the term psionics was Traveller, published by GDW in 1977, and published in different licensed versions to this day. The game Starcraft had a race called Protoss who are psionic beings.
Psionics are a popular device in video games, board games, and many other forms of gaming. Typically such powers are used to introduce super-human, magic-like powers in a context where magic would not fit into the setting.
- "The Parapsychological Association"
- "The Institute of Noetic Sciences"
- Rhine Psionics Research Center
- Psionics Research Database
- Princeton Global Consciousness Project
- http://metapara.weebly.com/psionic.html A psionic research and developmental site/community.
- ↑ Glossary of Psi (Parapsychological) Terms (L-R)
- ↑ The History of Psi
- ↑ Psionics
- ↑ Online Etymology Dictionary, Entry for psionic.
- ↑ Poul Anderson, Magic and psionics however, are two different subjects "Fantasy in the Age of Science", p 270, Fantasy ISBN 48-51518
- ↑ Robert A. Heinlein, "Part Two: His Preposterous Heritage" and "Part Four: His Scandalous Career", pp 227, 317, etc., "Stranger in a Strange Land", Ace Science Fiction (Ace Books, New York, 1961) ISBN 0-441-79034-8
- ↑ http://www.wizards.com/d20/files/v35/PsionicClasses.rtf