James Randi

James Randi (born Randall James Hamilton Zwinge; August 7, 1928)[1] is a Canadian-American stage magician and scientific skeptic[2][3] best known as a challenger of paranormal claims and pseudoscience. Randi is the founder of the James Randi Educational Foundation (JREF). Randi began his career as a magician named The Amazing Randi, but after retiring at age 60, he began investigating paranormal, occult, and supernatural claims, which he collectively calls "woo-woo."[4]

Although often referred to as a "debunker," Randi rejects that title owing to its perceived bias, instead describing himself as an "investigator."[5] He has written about the paranormal, skepticism, and the history of magic. He was a frequent guest on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson and was occasionally featured on the television program Penn & Teller: Bullshit!. The JREF sponsors The One Million Dollar Paranormal Challenge offering a prize of US$1,000,000 to eligible applicants[6] who can demonstrate evidence of any paranormal, supernatural or occult power or event under test conditions agreed to by both parties.[7]

Early lifeEdit

Randi was born in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and has a younger brother and sister.[8] He took up magic after reading magic books while spending 13 months in a body cast following a bicycle accident. He confounded doctors who expected he would never walk again.[9] Although a brilliant student, Randi often skipped school, and he dropped out of high school at 17 to perform as a conjurer in a carnival roadshow.[10] In his twenties, Randi posed as a psychic to establish that they were actually doing simple tricks and briefly wrote an astrological column in the Canadian tabloid Midnight under the name "Zo-ran," by simply shuffling up items from newspaper astrology columns and pasting them randomly into a column.[11][12] In his thirties, Randi worked in Hawaii, in Philippine night clubs and all across Japan.[13] He witnessed many tricks that were presented as being supernatural. One of his earliest reported experiences is that of seeing an evangelist using a version of the "one-ahead"[14] routine to convince churchgoers of his divine powers.[15]




Randi worked as a professional stage magician, or "conjurer" as he prefers to be called,[16] and escapologist beginning in 1946, initially under his birth name, Randall Zwinge, and then as The Amazing Randi. Early in his career, Randi was part of numerous stunts involving escapes from jail cells and safes. On February 7, 1956, he appeared live on The Today Show, remaining in a sealed metal coffin submerged in a hotel swimming pool for 104 minutes, breaking what was said to be Houdini's record of 93 minutes.[17][18]

Randi was the host of The Randi Show on New York radio station WOR in the mid 1960s.[19] This radio show, which filled Long John Nebel's old slot with similar content after Nebel went to WNBC in 1962, had frequent pro-paranormal guests, including Randi's then-friend James Moseley. Randi, in turn, spoke at Moseley's 1967 Fourth Congress of Scientific Ufologists in New York City,[20] stating, "Let's not fool ourselves. There are some garden variety liars involved in all this. But in among all the trash and nonsense perpetrated in the name of Ufology, I think there is a small grain of truth."[21]

Randi also hosted numerous television specials and went on several world tours. Then he appeared as "The Amazing Randi" on a television show titled Wonderama from 1967 to 1972,[22] and as host of an attempted revival of the 1950s children's show The Magic Clown in 1970.[23] In the February 2, 1974, issue of Abracadabra (a British conjuring magazine), Randi defined the magic community, saying, "I know of no calling which depends so much upon mutual trust and faith as does ours." In the December 2003 issue of The Linking Ring, the monthly publication of The International Brotherhood of Magicians, Points to Ponder: Another Matter of Ethics, p. 97, it is stated, "Perhaps Randi's ethics are what make him Amazing" and "The Amazing Randi not only talks the talk, he walks the walk."

During Alice Cooper's 1973–1974 tour, Randi performed as the dentist and executioner on stage,[24] and built several of the stage props, including the guillotine.[25][26] Shortly after that, in February 1975, Randi escaped from a straitjacket while suspended upside-down over Niagara Falls in the winter on the Canadian TV program World of Wizards, which he also hosted.[27]

Randi was once accused of actually using "psychic powers" to perform acts such as spoon bending. James Alcock relates this incident, which occurred at a meeting where Randi was duplicating the performances of Uri Geller: A professor from the University at Buffalo shouted out that Randi was a fraud. Randi said, "Yes, indeed, I'm a trickster, I'm a cheat, I'm a charlatan, that's what I do for a living. Everything I've done here was by trickery." The professor shouted back: "That's not what I mean. You're a fraud because you're pretending to do these things through trickery, but you're actually using psychic powers and misleading us by not admitting it."[28] The famous author and believer in spiritualism Arthur Conan Doyle had years earlier made a similar accusation against the magician Harry Houdini.[29] A similar event involved Senator Claiborne Pell. Pell believed in psychic phenomena. Pell confronted Randi and challenged him to duplicate Uri Geller's trick of viewing a hidden drawing - by using trickery. When Randi did so, Pell refused to believe that it was a trick, saying, "I think Randi may be a psychic and doesn't realize it."[30]


Randi is author of Conjuring (1992), a biographical history of noted magicians. The book is subtitled: Being a Definitive History of the Venerable Arts of Sorcery, Prestidigitation, Wizardry, Deception, & Chicanery and of the Mountebanks & Scoundrels Who have Perpetrated these Subterfuges on a Bewildered Public, in short, MAGIC!. The book selects some of the most influential magicians and explains their history in the context of strange deaths and careers on the road. This work expanded on the 1976 book Houdini, His Life and Art, co-authored with Bert Randolph Sugar, which focused on Houdini and his cohorts. Randi also wrote a children's book in 1989 titled The Magic World of the Amazing Randi, which introduced children to magic tricks. In addition to his magic books, he has written several educational works about the paranormal and pseudoscientific. These include biographies of Uri Geller and Nostradamus as well as reference material on other major paranormal figures. He is currently working on A Magician in the Laboratory, which recounts his application of skepticism to science,[31] though in January 2011, he expressed some doubts as to whether it would be finished.[32] He now expects it to be published in 2013. Randi was a member of the all-male literary banqueting club the Trap Door Spiders, which served as the basis of Isaac Asimov's fictional group of mystery solvers the Black Widowers.[33]



Randi entered the international spotlight in 1972 when he publicly challenged the claims of Uri Geller. Randi accused Geller of being nothing more than a charlatan who used standard magic tricks to accomplish his allegedly paranormal feats, and he supported his claims in the book The Truth About Uri Geller.[15][34] Geller sued Randi for $15 million in 1991 and lost.[35] Geller's suit against the Committee for Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP) was thrown out in 1995, and he was ordered to pay $120,000 for filing a frivolous lawsuit.[36]

Randi was a founding fellow and prominent member of CSICOP.[37] During the period when Geller was filing numerous civil suits against him, CSICOP's leadership, wanting to avoid becoming a target of Geller's litigation, requested that Randi refrain from commenting on Geller. Randi refused and resigned. However, he still maintains a respectful relationship with the group and frequently writes articles for its magazine.

Randi has gone on to write several books criticizing beliefs and claims regarding the paranormal.[38] He has also demonstrated flaws in studies suggesting the existence of paranormal phenomena; in his Project Alpha hoax, Randi revealed that he had been able to orchestrate a three-year-long compromise of a privately funded psychic research experiment.[39] The hoax became a scandal and demonstrated the shortcomings of many paranormal research projects at the university level.

Randi has appeared on numerous TV shows, sometimes to directly debunk the claimed abilities of fellow guests. In a 1981 appearance on That's My Line, Randi appeared opposite psychic James Hydrick, who claimed that he could move things with his mind and demonstrated this ability on live television by apparently turning a page in a telephone book without touching it.[40] Randi, having determined that Hydrick was surreptitiously blowing on the book, arranged packaging peanuts (polystyrene foam shapes) on the table in front of the telephone book for the demonstration, preventing Hydrick from demonstrating his abilities, which would have been exposed when the blowing moved the packaging.[41] Many years later, Hydrick admitted his fraud.[42]

Randi was awarded a MacArthur Foundation Genius award in 1986. The money was used for Randi's comprehensive exposé of faith healers, including Peter Popoff, W.V. Grant and Ernest Angley. When Popoff was exposed, he was forced to declare bankruptcy within the year.[43]

In 1988, Randi tested the gullibility of the media by perpetrating a hoax of his own. By teaming up with Australia's 60 Minutes program and by releasing a fake press package, he built up publicity for a spirit channeler named Carlos who was actually artist Deyvi Pena, aka Jose Alvarez, Randi's partner. Randi would tell him what to say through sophisticated radio equipment. The media and the public were taken in, as no reporter bothered to check Carlos's credentials and history, which were all fabricated. The hoax was exposed on the Australian TV show 60 Minutes; Carlos and Randi explained how they pulled it off.[44][45]

In the book The Faith Healers, Randi explains his anger and relentlessness as arising out of compassion for the helpless victims of frauds. Randi has also been critical of João de Deus (John of God), a self-proclaimed psychic surgeon who has received international attention.[46] Randi observed, referring to psychic surgery, "To any experienced conjurer, the methods by which these seeming miracles are produced are very obvious."[47]

In 1982, Randi verified the abilities of Arthur Lintgen, a Philadelphia physician who is able to determine the classical music recorded on a vinyl LP solely by examining the grooves of the record. However, Lintgen does not claim to have any paranormal ability, merely knowledge of the way that the groove forms patterns on particular recordings.[48]

James Randi stated that Daniel Dunglas Home, who allegedly could play an accordion that was locked in a cage, without touching it, was caught cheating on a few occasions, but the episodes were never made public, and that the accordion in question was a one-octave mouth organ that Home concealed under his large moustache. James Randi writes that one-octave mouth organs were found in Home's belongings after his death.[49] According to Randi 'around 1960' William Lindsay Gresham told Randi he had personally seen these tiny mouth organs in the Home collection at the Society for Psychical Research.[50] However, Eric Dingwall, who catalogued Home's collection on its arrival at the SPR does not record the presence of the mouth organs. According to Peter Lamont, the author of an extensive Home biography, "It is unlikely Dingwall would have missed these or did not make them public."[51]

James Randi Educational Foundation (JREF)Edit

Main article: James Randi Educational Foundation

In 1996, Randi established the James Randi Educational Foundation (JREF), now headquartered in Los Angeles. Randi and his colleagues update JREF's blog, Swift, named in honor of Jonathan Swift of "Gulliver's Travels" fame. Topics have included the mathematics of the one-seventh area triangle. Randi also contributes a regular column, titled "'Twas Brillig," to The Skeptics Society's Skeptic Magazine. In his weekly commentary, Randi often gives examples of what he considers the nonsense that he deals with every day.[52]

He has regularly featured on many podcasts, including The Skeptics Society's official podcast Skepticality[53][54] and the Center for Inquiry's official podcast Point of Inquiry.[55] From September 2006 onwards, he has occasionally contributed to The Skeptics' Guide to the Universe podcast with a column titled "Randi Speaks."[56] In addition, "The Amazing Show" is a podcast in which Randi shares various anecdotes in an interview format.

Views on religionEdit

In his essay "Why I Deny Religion, How Silly and Fantastic It Is, and Why I'm a Dedicated and Vociferous Bright", Randi, who identifies himself as an atheist,[57] has stated that many accounts in religious texts, including the virgin birth, the miracles of Jesus Christ, and the parting of the Red Sea by Moses, are not believable. For example, Randi refers to the Virgin Mary as being "impregnated by a ghost of some sort, and as a result produced a son who could walk on water, raise the dead, turn water into wine, and multiply loaves of bread and fishes" and questions how Adam and Eve "could have two sons, one of whom killed the other, and yet managed to populate the Earth without committing incest." He writes that, compared to the Bible, "The Wizard of Oz is more believable. And more fun."[58] In An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural, he looks at a variety of spiritual practices skeptically. Of the meditation techniques of Guru Maharaj Ji (Prem Rawat) he writes: "Only the very naive were convinced that they had been let in on some sort of celestial secret."[59]

The One Million Dollar Paranormal ChallengeEdit

Main article: James Randi Educational Foundation#The One Million Dollar Paranormal Challenge

The James Randi Educational Foundation (JREF) currently offers a prize of one million U.S. dollars to eligible applicants who can demonstrate a supernatural ability under agreed-upon scientific testing criteria. Similar to the paranormal challenges of John Nevil Maskelyne and Houdini, in 1964, Randi put up $1,000 of his own money payable to anyone who could provide objective proof of the paranormal.[60] Since then, the prize money has grown to the current $1,000,000, and has formal published rules. No one has progressed past the preliminary test, which is set up with parameters agreed to by both Randi and the applicant. He refuses to accept any challengers who might suffer serious injury or death as a result of the testing.

On Larry King Live, March 6, 2001, Larry King asked Sylvia Browne if she would take the challenge and she agreed.[61] Then Randi appeared with Browne on Larry King Live on September 3, 2001, and she again accepted the challenge.[62] However, she has now refused to be tested and Randi used to keep a clock on his website recording the number of weeks that have passed since Browne accepted the challenge without following through.[63] During Larry King Live on June 5, 2001, Randi challenged Rosemary Altea to undergo testing for the million dollars. However, Altea would not even address the question.[64] Instead Altea, in part, replied "I agree with what he says, that there are many, many people who claim to be spiritual mediums, they claim to talk to the dead. There are many people, we all know this. There are cheats and charlatans everywhere."[64] Then on January 26, 2007, Altea and Randi again appeared on Larry King Live. Once again, she refused to answer whether or not she would take the One Million Dollar Paranormal Challenge.[65]

Starting on April 1, 2007, only those with an already existing media profile and the backing of a reputable academic were allowed to apply for the challenge.[66] The resources freed up by not having to test obscure and possibly mentally ill claimants will then be used to more aggressively challenge notorious high-profile alleged psychics and mediums such as Sylvia Browne, Allison DuBois and John Edward with a campaign in the media.[66]

JREF maintains a public log of past participants in the Million Dollar Challenge.[67]

Legal disputesEdit

Randi has been involved in a variety of legal disputes but claims that he has "never paid even one dollar or even one cent to anyone who ever sued me."[4] However, he says, he has had to pay out large sums to personally defend himself in these suits.

Eldon ByrdEdit

A Baltimore District Court found Randi liable for defaming Byrd for calling him a "convicted child molester" because, although Byrd had been found guilty of child pornography offenses and admitted to molestation, the admission was part of a plea bargain so he was not actually convicted.[68] No damages were awarded to Byrd.[69]

Uri GellerEdit

According to Randi, Geller tried to sue Randi a number of times, but never won, save for a ruling in a Japanese court that ordered Randi to pay Geller one third of one percent of what Geller had demanded, but this ruling was canceled, and the matter dropped when Geller decided to concentrate on another legal matter.[70][71] Randi later stated that the phrase "shot himself in the head" - rather than "in the foot" - was a metaphor that had been lost in translation.[72] He had made a similar statement in English three years earlier in a Toronto newspaper: "The scientist shot himself after I showed him how the key bending trick was done." Though Randi informed the newspaper that the reporter had taken that quotation from the erroneous Japanese reference, they issued no correction.[73] Template:Wikisource In 1991, Randi commented that Uri Geller's public performances were of the same quality as those found on the backs of cereal boxes. Geller sued both Randi and CSICOP. CSICOP argued that the organization was not responsible for Randi's statements. The court agreed that including CSICOP was frivolous and dropped them from the action, leaving Randi to face the action alone. Geller was ordered to pay substantial damages to CSICOP.[74][75] Randi and Geller subsequently settled their dispute out of court, the details of which have been kept confidential. The settlement also included an agreement that Geller would not pursue Randi for the award in the Japanese case or other outstanding cases. Randi subsequently produced the "CocoPuffs" cereal box that bore the Geller spoon-bending trick.


Allison DuBois, on whose life the television series Medium was based, threatened Randi with legal action for using a photo of her from her website in his December 17, 2004, commentary without her permission.[76] Randi removed the photo and now uses a caricature of DuBois when mentioning her on his site, beginning with his December 23, 2005, commentary.[77]

Late in 1996, Randi launched a libel suit against a Toronto-area psychic named Earl Gordon Curley.[78] Curley had made multiple objectionable comments about Randi on Usenet. Despite prodding Randi via Usenet to sue (Curley's comments had implied that if Randi did not sue, then his allegations must be true), Curley seemed entirely surprised when Randi actually retained Toronto's largest law firm and initiated legal proceedings. The suit was eventually dropped in 1998 when Earl Curley died at the age of 51.[79]

Sniffex, producer of a dowsing bomb detection device, sued Randi and the JREF in 2007 and lost.[80] Sniffex sued Randi for his comments regarding a government test in which the Sniffex device failed. The company was later investigated and charged with fraud.[80]

Personal lifeEdit

In 1987, Randi became a naturalized citizen of the United States.[81] Randi has said that one reason he became an American citizen was an incident while on tour with Alice Cooper where the Royal Canadian Mounted Police searched the band's lockers during a performance. Nothing was found, yet the RCMP destroyed the room.[82]

In February 2006, Randi underwent coronary artery bypass surgery.[83] In early February 2006, he was declared to be in stable condition and "receiving excellent care" with his recovery proceeding well. The weekly commentary updates to his website were made by guests while he was hospitalized.[84] Randi recovered after his surgery and was able to help organize and attend the 2007 Amazing Meeting in Las Vegas, Nevada (an annual convention of scientists, magicians, skeptics, atheists and freethinkers).[85]

Randi was diagnosed with intestinal cancer in June 2009.[86] He had a ping pong ball-sized tumor removed from his intestines during laproscopic surgery. He announced this a week later at the July 2009 The Amazing Meeting as well as the fact that he was scheduled to begin chemotherapy in the following weeks.[87] He also said at the conference: "One day, I'm gonna die. That's all there is to it. Hey, it's too bad, but I've got to make room. I'm using a lot of oxygen and such—I think it's good use of oxygen myself, but of course, I'm a little prejudiced on the matter."[87] Randi also said that after he is gone he does not want his fans to bother with a museum of magic named after him or burying him in a fancy tomb. Instead, he said, "I want to be cremated, and I want my ashes blown in Uri Geller's eyes."[87] Randi underwent his final chemotherapy session on December 31, 2009, as he explained in a January 12, 2010 video in which he related that his chemotherapy experience was not as unpleasant as he had imagined.[86] In a video posted April 12, 2010, Randi stated that he has been given a clean bill of health.Template:Citation needed

In a March 21, 2010 blog entry, Randi came out as gay, a move he explained was inspired by seeing the 2008 biographical drama film Milk, in which Sean Penn portrayed Harvey Milk, the first openly gay man to be elected to public office in California.[88][89]

File:JREF TAM9 Beard Photo.jpg

Awards and honorsEdit

In 2012, the Academy of Magical Arts in Hollywood presented James Randi with their Lifetime Achievement Award.

World recordsEdit

The following are Guinness records:

  • Randi was in a sealed casket underwater for an hour and 44 minutes, which broke Harry Houdini's record of one hour and 33 minutes set on August 5, 1926.[9]
  • Randi was encased in a block of ice for 55 minutes.[9]


TV and filmEdit



Other mediaEdit

James Randi can be heard speaking an introduction on Tommy Finkes song "Poet der Affen/Poet of the Apes", released on the album of the same name in 2010. The message was recorded by James Randi and sent to Tommy Finke via email.[96]

See alsoEdit


  1. Template:Cite book
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  3. Template:Cite newsTemplate:Dead link
  4. 4.0 4.1 Template:Cite web
  5. One-Million-Dollar Challenge from MIT Media Lab: Affective Computing Group
  6. JREF Challenge Application Form, Rule 12, accessed November 23, 2010
  7. Template:Cite web
  8. Template:Cite web
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Template:Cite news
  10. Template:Cite web
  11. Template:Cite book Randi reprints two newspaper columns from the Toronto Evening Telegram of August 28, 1950 and August 14, 1950 by Wessely Hicks about Randall Zwinge's psychic predictions. The earlier column states that "Mr. Zwinge said he first became aware that he possessed Extra Sensory Perception when he was nine years old."
  12. Template:Cite book
  13. Template:Cite web
  14. Template:Cite news
  15. 15.0 15.1 Template:Cite news
  16. Randi explained in a February 2007 presentation that he believes the word "magician" implies one who has actual magical abilities, whereas a conjurer is one who uses skills to merely play the part of one. "James Randi's fiery takedown of psychic fraud" TED; Accessed April 24, 2010.
  17. Sinclair, Gordon, "Television & radio column", Toronto Star, February 7, 1956.
  18. Bryant, George, "Handcuffs no problem Toronto-born magician laughs at locksmiths", Toronto Star, June 21, 1956.
  19. Template:Cite news
  20. Template:Cite book
  21. Template:Cite news
  22. Template:Cite web "Sonny Fox hosted another 'Wonderama Thanksgiving Day Party' on Thursday afternoon, November 23, 1961, with guests ventriloquist and cartoon voiceover performer Paul Winchell, magician/escape artist and magic historian The Amazing James Randi and folk singer Pat Woodell." [1]
  23. Template:Cite web
  24. "Good To See You Again, Alice Cooper," Live 1973 (DVD 2005), "Billion Dollar Babies Tour"
  25. Template:Cite news
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  29. Arthur Conan Doyle (1930) The Edge of the Unknown, Putnam's
  30. Martin Gardner, Did Adam and Eve have Navels, 2000, Norton, ISBN 978-0-393-04963-3, p. 178
  31. "JAMES RANDI – Bio Information",, accessed January 21, 2011.
  32. Randi, James. "Teleportation Magic Established By Science, At Last!",, January 19, 2011
  33. Asimov 1994, I. Asimov, chapter "120. The Trap Door Spiders".
  34. Template:Cite news
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  36. Template:Cite news
  37. Michael Kernan, "God's Chariot! Science Looks at the New Occult," The Washington Post, June 11, 1978
  38. Template:Cite web
  39. Philip J. Hilts, "Magicians Score a Hit On Scientific Researchers," Washington Post March 1, 1983, First Section; A1
  40. Template:Cite news
  41. Video of Hydrick's page turning debunking from Google Video
  42. Korem, Dan (1983). Psychic Confession. (also transcript)
  43. Template:Cite news
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  50. The First Psychic: The Peculiar Mystery of a Notorious Victorian Wizard by Peter Lamont, Little, Brown, 2005 p 302
  51. Lamont 2005 p 302
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  57. Randi, James. "Our Stance on Atheism", "Swift", JREF, August 5, 2005, Accessed January 27, 2011.
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  60. Template:Cite news
  61. Are Psychics for Real? appeared with John Edward March 6, 2001, on Larry King Live CNN
  62. Template:Cite news
  63. The Sylvia Browne Clock from the James Randi Educational Foundation website
  64. 64.0 64.1 Spiritual Medium Versus Paranormal Skeptic (Rosemary Altea verses Randi) on Larry King Live June 5, 2001
  65. Template:Cite news
  66. 66.0 66.1 Template:Cite news
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  71. Marcello Truzzi, An End to the Uri Geller vs. Randi & CSICOP Litigations? [2]
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  86. 86.0 86.1 Thorp, Brandon K. "Randi On (and Off) Chemotherapy" Swift; January 12, 2010
  87. 87.0 87.1 87.2 Template:Cite webSF Weekly, August 24, 2009, lengthy article by Michael J. Mooney, which reported: "He has intestinal cancer and may not have long to live."
  88. Randi, James. "How To Say It?", "Swift", March 21, 2010
  89. Template:Cite web
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  95. 95.0 95.1 "JAMES RANDI – Bio Information", accessed December 20, 2010
  96. Video by Tommy Finke about the album (German)

External linksEdit

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