The term "angel" has also been expanded to various notions of spiritual beings found in many other religious traditions.
Other roles of angels include protecting and guiding human beings, and carrying out God's tasks.
The theological study of angels is known as angelology. In art, angels are often depicted with wings; perhaps reflecting the descriptions in Revelation 4:6-8 -- of the Four Living Creatures (τὰ τέσσαρα ζῷα) and the descriptions in the Hebrew Bible—of cherubim and seraphim (the chayot in Ezekiel's Merkabah vision and the Seraphim of Isaiah). However, while cherubim and seraphim have wings in the Bible, no angel is mentioned as having wings.
The word angel in English is a fusion of the Old English word engel (with a hard g) and the Old French angele. Both derive from the Latin angelus which in turn is the romanization of the ancient Greek ἄγγελος (angelos), "messenger", which is related to the Greek verb ἀγγέλλω (angellō), meaning "bear a message, announce, bring news of" etc. The earliest form of the word is the Mycenaean a-ke-ro attested in Linear B syllabic script.
Philosophically, angels are "pure contingent spirits." Philo of Alexandria identifies the angel with the Logos as far as the angel is the immaterial voice of God. The angel is something different than God Himself, but is conceived just as a God's instrument. According to Aristotle, just as there is a First Mover, so, too, must there be spiritual secondary movers.Template:Request quotation Thomas Aquinas (13th century) expands upon this in his Summa contra Gentiles and Summa Theologica.
- Main article: Angel (Judaism)
The Bible uses the terms מלאך אלהים (mal'akh Elohim; messenger of God), מלאך יהוה (mal'akh YHWH; messenger of the Lord), בני אלהים (b'nai Elohim; sons of God) and הקודשים (ha-qodeshim; the holy ones) to refer to beings traditionally interpreted as angels. Later texts use other terms, such as העליונים (ha'elyoneem; the upper ones).
Scholar Michael D. Coogan notes that it is only in the late books that the terms "come to mean the benevolent semidivine beings familiar from later mythology and art." Daniel is the first biblical figure to refer to individual angels by name, mentioning Gabriel (God's primary messenger) in Daniel 9:21 and Michael (the holy fighter) in Daniel 10:13. These angels are part of Daniel's apocalyptic visions and are an important part of all apocalyptic literature. Coogan explains the development of this concept of angels: "In the postexilic period, with the development of explicit monotheism, these divine beings—the 'sons of God' who were members of the divine council—were in effect demoted to what are now known as 'angels', understood as beings created by God, but immortal and thus superior to humans." This conception of angels is best understood in contrast to demons and is often thought to be "influenced by the ancient Persian religious tradition of Zoroastrianism, which viewed the world as a battleground between forces of good and forces of evil, between light and darkness." One of these "sons of God" is "the satan", a figure depicted in (among other places) the Book of Job.
In post-Biblical Judaism, certain angels took on particular significance and developed unique personalities and roles. Though these archangels were believed to rank among the heavenly host, no systematic hierarchy ever developed. Metatron is considered one of the highest of the angels in Merkabah and Kabbalist mysticism and often serves as a scribe; he is briefly mentioned in the Talmud and figures prominently in Merkabah mystical texts. Michael, who serves as a warrior and advocate for Israel (Template:Bibleverse), is looked upon particularly fondly. Gabriel is mentioned in the Book of Daniel (Template:Bibleverse), the Book of Tobit, and briefly in the Talmud, as well as in many Merkabah mystical texts. There is no evidence in Judaism for the worship of angels, but there is evidence for the invocation and sometimes even conjuration of angels.
According to Kabalah, there are four worlds and our world is the last world: the world of action (Assiyah). Angels exist in the worlds above as a 'task' of God. They are an extension of God to produce effects in this world. After an angel has completed its task, it ceases to exist. The angel is in effect the task. This is derived from the book of Genesis when Abraham meets with three angels and Lot meets with two. The task of one of the angels was to inform Abraham of his coming child. The other two were to save Lot and to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah.
Famous angels and their tasks:
- Malachim (translation: messengers), general word for angel
- Michael (translation: who is like God?), performs God's kindness
- Gabriel (translation: the strength of God), performs acts of justice and power
- Raphael (translation: God Heals), God's healing force
- Uriel (translation: God is my light), leads us to destiny
- Seraphim (translation: the burning ones), sing and praise God
- Malach HaMavet (translation: the angel of death)
- Satan (translation: the adversary), brings people's sins before them in the heavenly court
- Chayot HaKodesh (translation: living beings)
- Ophanim (translation: arbits) Guardians of the Throne of God
- Main article: Christian angelic hierarchy
Early Christians inherited Jewish understandings of angels, which in turn may have been partly inherited from the Egyptians. In the early stage, the Christian concept of an angel characterized the angel as a messenger of God.Template:Citation needed Angels are creatures of good, spirits of love, and messengers of the savior Jesus Christ.Template:Citation needed Later came identification of individual angelic messengers: Gabriel, Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Satan/Lucifer.Template:Citation needed Then, in the space of little more than two centuries (from the third to the fifth) the image of angels took on definite characteristics both in theology and in art.
By the late fourth century, the Church Fathers agreed that there were different categories of angels, with appropriate missions and activities assigned to them. Some theologians had proposed that Jesus was not divine but on the level of immaterial beings subordinate to the Trinity. The resolution of this Trinitarian dispute included the development of doctrine about angels.
The angels are represented throughout the Christian Bible as a body of spiritual beings intermediate between God and men: "You have made him (man) a little less than the angels..." (Template:Bibleverse). Some Christians believe that angels are created beings, and use the following passage as evidence: "praise ye Him, all His angels: praise ye Him, all His hosts... for He spoke and they were made. He commanded and they were created..." (Template:Bibleverse; Template:Bibleverse). The Fourth Lateran Council (1215) declared that the angels were created beings. The Council's decree Firmiter credimus (issued against the Albigenses) declared both that angels were created and that men were created after them. The First Vatican Council (1869) repeated this declaration in Dei Filius, the "Dogmatic constitution on the Catholic faith". Of note is that the Bible describes the function of angels as "messengers" and does not indicate when the creation of angels occurred.
Many Christians regard angels as asexual and not belonging to either gender as they interpret Matthew 22:30 in this way. Angels are on the other hand usually described as looking like male human beings. Their names are also masculine. And although angels have greater knowledge than men, they are not omniscient, as Matthew 24:36 points out.
Interaction with angelsEdit
The New Testament includes many of interactions and conversations between angels and humans. For instance, three separate cases of angelic interaction deal with the births of John the Baptist and Jesus Christ. In Luke 1:11, an angel appears to Zechariah to inform him that he will have a child despite his old age, thus proclaiming the birth of John the Baptist And in Luke 1:26 the archangel Gabriel visits the Virgin Mary in the Annunciation to foretell the birth of Jesus Christ. Angels then proclaim the birth of Jesus in the Adoration of the shepherds in Luke 2:10. Angels also appear later in the New Testament. In Luke 22:43 an angel comforts Jesus Christ during the Agony in the Garden. In Matthew 28:5 an angel speaks at the empty tomb, following the Resurrection of Jesus and the rolling back of the stone by angels. Hebrews 13:2 reminds the reader that they may "entertain angels unaware".
Since the completion of the New Testament, the Christian tradition has continued to include a number of reported interactions with angels. For instance, in 1851 Pope Pius IX approved the Chaplet of Saint Michael based on the 1751 private revelation from archangel Michael to the Carmelite nun Antonia d'Astonac. And Pope John Paul II emphasized the role of angels in Catholic teachings in his 1986 address titled "Angels Participate In History Of Salvation", in which he suggested that modern mentality should come to see the importance of angels.
As recently as the 20th century, visionaries and mystics have reported interactions with, and indeed dictations from, angels. For instance, the bed-ridden Italian writer and mystic Maria Valtorta wrote The Book of Azariah based on "dictations" that she directly attributed to her guardian angel Azariah, discussing the Roman Missal used for Sunday Mass in 1946 and 1947.
The earliest known Christian image of an angel—in the Cubicolo dell'Annunziazione in the Catacomb of Priscilla (mid-third century)—is without wings. In that same period, representations of angels on sarcophagi, lamps and reliquaries also show them without wings, as for example the angel in the Sacrifice of Isaac scene in the Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus (although the side view of the Sarcophagus shows winged angelic figures).
The earliest known representation of angels with wings is on the "Prince's Sarcophagus", discovered in the 1930s at Sarigüzel, near Istanbul, and attributed to the time of Theodosius I (379-395). From that period on, Christian art has represented angels mostly with wings, as in the cycle of mosaics in the Basilica of Saint Mary Major (432–440). Four- and six-winged angels, drawn from the higher grades of angels (especially cherubim and seraphim) and often showing only their faces and wings, are derived from Persian art and are usually shown only in heavenly contexts, as opposed to performing tasks on earth. They often appear in the pendentives of church domes or semi-domes. Prior of the Judeo-Christian tradition in the Greek world, the Greek goddess Nike and the god Eros were also depicted in human-like form with wings.
In terms of their clothing, angels, especially the Archangel Michael, were depicted as military-style agents of God and came to be shown wearing Late Antique military uniform. This uniform could be the normal military dress, with a tunic to about the knees, an armour breastplate and pteruges, but was often the specific dress of the bodyguard of the Byzantine Emperor, with a long tunic and the loros, the long gold and jewelled pallium restricted to the Imperial family and their closest guards. The basic military dress was shown in Western art into the Baroque period and beyond (see Reni picture above), and up to the present day in Eastern Orthodox icons. Other angels came to be conventionally depicted in long robes, and in the later Middle Ages they often wear the vestments of a deacon, a cope over a dalmatic; this costume was used especially for Gabriel in Annunciation scenes—for example the Annunciation in Washington by Jan van Eyck.
Latter Day SaintsEdit
Adherents of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (generally referred to as "Mormons") view angels as the messengers of God. They are sent to mankind to deliver messages, minister to humanity, teach doctrines of salvation, call mankind to repentance, give priesthood keys, save individuals in perilous times, and guide humankind.
Latter Day Saints believe that angels are the spirits of humans who are deceased or who have yet to be born, and accordingly Joseph Smith taught that "there are no angels who minister to this earth but those that do belong or have belonged to it." As such, Latter Day Saints also believe that Adam (the first man) is now the archangel Michael, and that Gabriel lived on the earth as Noah. Likewise the Angel Moroni first lived in a pre-Columbian American civilization as the 5th-century prophet-warrior named Moroni.
Most angelic visitations in the early Latter Day Saint movement were witnessed by Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery, who both claimed (prior to the establishment of the Church in 1830) to have been visited by the prophet Moroni, John the Baptist, and the Apostles Peter, James, and John. Later, at the dedication of the Kirtland Temple, Smith and Sidney Rigdon claimed to have been visited by Jesus, and subsequently by Moses, Elias, and Elijah. Angels are typically depicted in Mormon art as having no wings based on a quote from Joseph Smith ("An angel of God never has wings").
People who claimed to have received a visit by an angel include the other two of the Three Witnesses: David Whitmer and Martin Harris. Many other Latter Day Saints, both in the early and modern church, have claimed to have seen angels, though Smith posited that, except in extenuating circumstances such as the restoration, mortals teach mortals, spirits teach spirits and resurrected beings teach other resurrected beings.
- Main article: Islamic view of angels
Angels (Arabic: ملائكة , Malāʾikah; Turkish: Melek) are mentioned many times in the Qur'an and Hadith. Islam is clear on the nature of angels in that they are messengers of God. They have no free will, and can do only what God orders them to do. An example of a task they carry out is that of testing individuals by granting them abundant wealth and curing their illness. Believing in angels is one of the six Articles of Faith in Islam.
In his Book of Certitude Bahá’u’lláh, founder of the Bahá’í Faith, describes angels as people who ‘have consumed, with the fire of the love of God, all human traits and limitations’, and have ‘clothed themselves’ with angelic attributes and have become ‘endowed with the attributes of the spiritual’. 'Abdu’l-Bahá describes angels as the ‘confirmations of God and His celestial powers’ and as ‘blessed beings who have severed all ties with this nether world’ and ‘been released from the chains of self’, and ‘revealers of God’s abounding grace’. The Bahá’í writings also refer to the Concourse on High, an angelic host, and the Maid of Heaven of Bahá’u’lláh's vision.
"Angel" is sometimes used as a translation of related concepts in non-Abrahamic traditions.
- Main article: Zoroastrian angelology
In Zoroastrianism there are different angel-like figures. For example, each person has one guardian angel, called Fravashi. They patronize human beings and other creatures, and also manifest God’s energy. The Amesha Spentas have often been regarded as angels, although there is no direct reference to them conveying messages, but are rather emanations of Ahura Mazda ("Wise Lord", God); they initially appear in an abstract fashion and then later became personalized, associated with diverse aspects of the divine creation.
In Hinduism, the term deva is sometimes translated by orientalists(erroneously) as "angel" (besides "god" or "deity"). But essentially deva is not an angel. Instead deva is the embodiment of a natural element with explicit manifestation in physical realms.
Template:Religious text primary In Sikhism, the references to angelic or divine deities is often objected as the religion focuses on the liberation of the soul and ultimately joining with Waheguru. However, in early scriptures written by Guru Nanak Dev Ji indicate specific heavenly deities to help in the judgment of the soul.
In So Dar and Raag Asa Sat Guru Nanak mentions clearly two beings Chitar and Gupat who record the deeds of men. These beings are Angels assigned with this Divine task by the Creator. Chitar records the deeds that are visible to all and Gupat records that which is hidden in thought or secret action. Their names themselves allude to the tasks which the All Mighty has bestowed upon them. The celestial beings are often seen at the gates of heaven, dressed in the most adorned and decorated gowns, holding the records on the actions and feelings of the soul in the line for judgement.
In Brahma Kumaris religion, it is taught that every member becomes angel of light (faristha in Hindi) and that founder Dada Lekhraj has already become perfect man and angel Brahma through practise of Raja Yoga.
New religious movements and occultismEdit
In the teachings of Theosophy, Devas are regarded as living either in the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system (Planetary Angels) or inside the Sun (Solar Angels) (presumably other planetary systems and stars have their own angels) and they help to guide the operation of the processes of nature such as the process of evolution and the growth of plants; their appearance is reputedly like colored flames about the size of a human. It is believed by Theosophists that devas can be observed when the third eye is activated. Some (but not most) devas originally incarnated as human beings.
It is believed by Theosophists that nature spirits, elementals (gnomes, undines, sylphs, and salamanders), and fairies can be also be observed when the third eye is activated. It is maintained by Theosophists that these less evolutionarily developed beings have never been previously incarnated as humans; they are regarded as being on a separate line of spiritual evolution called the “deva evolution”; eventually, as their souls advance as they reincarnate, it is believed they will incarnate as devas.
It is asserted by Theosophists that all of the above mentioned beings possess etheric bodies that are composed of etheric matter, a type of matter finer and more pure that is composed of smaller particles than ordinary physical plane matter.
Contemporary belief in angelsEdit
A 2002 study based on interviews with 350 people, mainly in the UK, who said they have had an experience of an angel, describes several types of such experiences: visions, sometimes with multiple witnesses present; auditions, e.g. to convey a warning; a sense of being touched, pushed, or lifted, typically to avert a dangerous situation; and pleasant fragrance, generally in the context of somebody's death. In the visual experiences, the angels described appear in various forms, either the "classical" one (human countenance with wings), in the form of extraordinarily beautiful or radiant human beings, or as beings of light.
In the US, a 2008 survey by Baylor University's Institute for Studies of Religion, published by TIME Magazine, which polled 1,700 respondents, found that 55 percent of Americans, including one in five of those who say they are not religious, believe that they have been protected by a guardian angel during their life. An August 2007 Pew poll found that 68 percent of Americans believe that "angels and demons are active in the world", and according to four different polls conducted in 2009, a greater percentage of Americans believe in angels (55%) than those who believe in global warming (36%).
According to the Gallup Youth Survey, in a Teen Belief in the Supernatural poll in 1994, 76% of 508 teenagers (aged 13–17) believe in angels, a greater percentage than those who believe in astrology, ESP, ghosts, witchcraft, clairvoyance, Bigfoot, and vampires. In 1978, 64% of American young people believed in angels; in 1984, 69% of teenagers believed in angels; and by 1994, that number grew to 76%, while belief in other supernatural concepts, such as the Loch Ness monster and ESP, have declined. In 1992, 80% of 502 surveyed teenage girls believe in angels, and 81% of Catholic teens and 82% of regular church attendees harbored beliefs in angels. According to another set of Gallup polls, designated towards all Americans, in 1994, 72% of Americans said they believed in angels, while in 2004, 78% of the surveyed Americans indicated belief in angels, with the percentage of Americans that did not believe in angels dropping from 15% to 10%, and the percentage of Americans that were "not sure" dropping from 13% to 11%.
In Canada, a 2008 survey of over 1000 Canadians found 67 percent believe in angels.
- Ethereal being
- Fallen angel
- Guardian angel
- Hierarchy of angels
- List of films about angels
- Shoulder angel
- Sons of God
- Watcher or Grigori
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 "מַלְאָךְ," Francis Brown, S.R. Driver, and Charles A. Briggs, eds.: A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament , p. 521.
- ↑ Pope, Hugh. "Angels." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. accessed 20 Oct. 2010
- ↑ Frederick Copleston, A History of Philosophy, Volume 1, Continuum, 2003, p. 460.
- ↑ Louis Goldberg Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology: Angel of the Lord "The functions of the angel of the Lord in the Old Testament prefigure the reconciling ministry of Jesus. In the New Testament, there is no mention of the angel of the Lord; the Messiah himself is this person."
- ↑ According also to Augustine of Hippo's Enarrationes in Psalmos Template:Latin, 103, I, 15
- ↑ "Angel," The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia James Orr, editor, 1915 edition.
- ↑ ἄγγελος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus project
- ↑ Henry George Liddell; Robert Scott , A Greek-English Lexicon; Machine readable text (Trustees of Tufts University, Oxford) online, retrieved 12 February 2011.
- ↑ a-ke-ro, Palaeolexicon (Word study tool of ancient languages)
- ↑ Mycenaean (Linear b) - English Glossaryy
- ↑ Template:Cite book
- ↑ Copleston, Frederick Charles (2003). A history of philosophy, Volume 1. Continuum International Publishing Group, p. 460. ISBN 0826468950
- ↑ Template:Cite book
- ↑ Template:Cite book
- ↑ Template:Cite book
- ↑ Template:Cite book
- ↑ Template:Cite book
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 [Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament (Oxford University Press, 2009)]
- ↑ Jewish Encyclopedia, accessed Feb. 15, 2008
- ↑ Sanhedrin 38b and Avodah Zerah 3b.
- ↑ cf. Sanhedrin 95b
- ↑ Angels, Jewish Encyclopedia, 1914
- ↑ The Jewish Encyclopedia Retrieved January 31, 2010
- ↑ The Jewish Encyclopedia, retrieved January 31, 2010
- ↑ Sizing Up Satan in the Bible, retrieved July 4, 2011
- ↑ The development of Jewish ideas of angels : Egyptian and Hellenistic connections, ca. 600 BCE to ca. 200 CE Evans, Annette Henrietta Margaretha 
- ↑ Proverbio(2007), pp. 25-38; cf. summary in Libreria Hoepli
- ↑ Proverbio(2007), pp. 29-38; cf. summary in Libreria Hoepli and review in La Civiltà Cattolica, 3795-3796 (2–16 August 2008), pp. 327-328.
- ↑ http://www.christiananswers.net/q-acb/acb-t005.html#2
- ↑ http://www.apologeticspress.org/articles/468
- ↑ BibleGateway, Matthew 24:36
- ↑ BibleGateway, Luke 1:11
- ↑ BibleGateway, Luke 1:26
- ↑ BibleGateway, Luke 2:10
- ↑ BibleGateway, Luke 22:43
- ↑ BibleGateway, Matthew 28:5
- ↑ BibleGateway, Hebrews 13:2
- ↑ Ann Ball, 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 087973910X page 123
- ↑ Angels Participate In History Of Salvation, Vatican website
- ↑ Maria Valtorta 1972, The Book of Azariah ISBN 8879870130
- ↑ Proverbio(2007), pp. 81-89; cf. review in La Civiltà Cattolica, 3795-3796 (2–16 August 2008), pp. 327-328.
- ↑ Proverbio(2007) p. 66
- ↑ Proverbio(2007), pp. 90–95; cf. review in La Civiltà Cattolica, 3795–3796 (2–16 August 2008), pp. 327–328.
- ↑ "God's messengers, those individuals whom he sends (often from his personal presence in the eternal worlds), to deliver his messages (Template:Bibleverse); to minister to his children (Template:Bibleverse, Template:Bibleverse); to teach them the doctrines of salvation (Mosiah 3); to call them to repentance (Moro. 7:31); to give them priesthood and keys (D. & C. 13; 128:20–21); to save them in perilous circumstances (Template:Bibleverse; Template:Bibleverse); to guide them in the performance of his work (Template:Bibleverse); to gather his elect in the last days (Template:Bibleverse); to perform all needful things relative to his work (Moro. 7:29–33)—such messengers are called angels.", Template:Cite book;
^ Deseret (1966) p.36.
- ↑ 45.0 45.1 LDS Bible Dictionary-Angels
- ↑ D&C 130:5
- ↑ "Chapter 6: The Fall of Adam and Eve," Gospel Principles, 31, see also the entry for Adam in “Glossary,” Gospel Principles, 376
- ↑ D&C 107:24
- ↑ Joseph Smith History 1:30-33
- ↑ D&C 110
- ↑ History of the Church, 3:392
- ↑ The Fulness of Times
- ↑ Template:Hadith-usc
- ↑ Template:Cite encyclopedia
- ↑ Lewis, James R., Oliver, Evelyn Dorothy, Sisung Kelle S. (Editor) (1996), Angels A to Z, Entry: Zoroastrianism, pp. 425-427, Visible Ink Press, ISBN 0-7876-0652-9
- ↑ Darmesteter, James (1880)(translator), The Zend Avesta, Part I: Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 4, pp. lx-lxxii, Oxford University Press, 1880, at sacred-texts.com
- ↑ Encyclopaedia Britannica
- ↑ Section 7, part 165 (Raag Gauree), and section 25, part 31 (Raag Maaroo). Hosted on the Internet Sacred Text Archive
- ↑ Shri Guru Granth Sahib: So Dar
- ↑ Shri Guru Granth Sahib: Raag Aasaa
- ↑ Basava Journal, Volume 19. Basava Samiti, 1994 (Bangalore, India).
- ↑ Peace & purity: the story of the Brahma Kumaris : a spiritual revolution By Liz Hodgkinson
- ↑ The Descent of incorporeal God into the human body of Brahma: a brief biographical account. Jagdish Chander 1984
- ↑ Illustrations on raja yoga: the science for attaining purity, peace, and bliss. Jagdish Chander 1975
- ↑ Hodson, Geoffrey, Kingdom of the Gods ISBN 0-7661-8134-0—Has color pictures of what Devas supposedly look like when observed by the third eye—their appearance is reputedly like colored flames about the size of a human. Paintings of some of the devas claimed to have been seen by Hodson from his book "Kingdom of the Gods":
- ↑ Eskild Tjalve’s paintings of devas, nature spirits, elementals and fairies:
- ↑ 67.0 67.1 Powell, A.E. The Solar System London:1930 The Theosophical Publishing House (A Complete Outline of the Theosophical Scheme of Evolution) See "Lifewave" chart (refer to index)
- ↑ Emma Heathcote-James (2002): Seeing Angels. London: John Blake Publishing.
- ↑ Guardian Angels Are Here, Say Most Americans TIME Retrieved August 25, 2010
- ↑ Half of Americans believe in angels ABC News
- ↑ Template:Cite web
- ↑ More Americans believe in angels than global warming
- ↑ More Americans believe in angels than humans’ role in global warming The Raw Story
- ↑ Template:Cite book
- ↑ Close Encounters of the Celestial Kind
- ↑ Americans More Likely to Believe in God than the Devil
- ↑ Angels and Demons in Christianity
- ↑ Template:Cite webTemplate:Citation broken
- Template:Cite book
- Cheyne, James Kelly (ed.) (1899). Angel. Encyclopædia Biblica. New York, Macmillan.
- Driver, Samuel Rolles (Ed.) (1901) The book of Daniel. Cambridge UP.
- Template:Cite encyclopedia
- Oosterzee, Johannes Jacobus van. Christian dogmatics: a text-book for academical instruction and private study. Trans. John Watson Watson and Maurice J. Evans. (1874) New York, Scribner, Armstrong.
- Smith, George Adam (1898) The book of the twelve prophets, commonly called the minor. London, Hodder and Stoughton.
- Bamberger, Bernard Jacob, (March 15, 2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0
- Template:Cite EB1911
- Briggs, Constance Victoria, 1997. The Encyclopedia of Angels : An A-to-Z Guide with Nearly 4,000 Entries. Plume. ISBN 0-452-27921-6.
- Bunson, Matthew, (1996). Angels A to Z : A Who's Who of the Heavenly Host. Three Rivers Press. ISBN 0-517-88537-9.
- Cruz, Joan Carroll, OCDS, 1999. Angels and Devils. TAN Books and Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-89555-638-3
- Davidson, Gustav. A Dictionary of Angels: Including the Fallen Angels. Free Press. ISBN 0-02-907052-X
- Graham, Billy, 1994. Angels: God's Secret Agents. W Pub Group; Minibook edition. ISBN 0-8499-5074-0
- Guiley, Rosemary, 1996. Encyclopedia of Angels. ISBN 0-8160-2988-1
- Jastrow, Marcus, 1996, A dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Bavli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic literature compiled by Marcus Jastrow, PhD., Litt.D. with and index of Scriptural quotatons, Vol 1 & 2, The Judaica Press, New York
- Kainz, Howard P., "Active and Passive Potency" in Thomistic Angelology Martinus Nijhoff. ISBN 90-247-1295-5
- Kreeft, Peter J. 1995. Angels and Demons: What Do We Really Know About Them? Ignatius Press. ISBN 0-89870-550-9
- Lewis, James R. (1995). Angels A to Z. Visible Ink Press. ISBN 0-7876-0652-9
- Melville, Francis, 2001. The Book of Angels: Turn to Your Angels for Guidance, Comfort, and Inspiration. Barron's Educational Series; 1st edition. ISBN 0-7641-5403-6
- Ronner, John, 1993. Know Your Angels: The Angel Almanac With Biographies of 100 Prominent Angels in Legend & Folklore-And Much More! Mamre Press. ISBN 0-932945-40-6.
- Swedenborg, Emanuel (1979). Conjugal Love. Swedenborg Foundation. ISBN 0-87785-054-2
- Catholic Encyclopedia entry on angels
- Zoroastrian angels
- Jewish Encyclopedia entry on angels
- Angels in Islam
ace:Malaikat ang:Enȝel ar:ملاك arc:ܡܠܐܟܐ av:Малаик az:Mələk be:Анёл bar:Engl (Religión) bs:Anđeo br:Ael bg:Ангел ca:Àngel cv:Пирĕшти cs:Anděl cy:Angel da:Engel de:Engel et:Ingel el:Άγγελος es:Ángel eo:Anĝelo eu:Aingeru fa:فرشته fr:Ange fy:Ingel gd:Aingeal gl:Anxo (cristianismo) ko:천사 hy:Հրեշտակներ hi:देवदूत hr:Anđeo io:Anjelo id:Malaikat zu:Ingelosi it:Angelo he:מלאך jv:Malaékat ka:ანგელოზი csb:Janiół kk:Періште sw:Malaika kv:Идӧг kg:Wanzio la:Angelus lv:Eņģelis lt:Angelas ln:Anjelu hu:Angyal mk:Ангел ml:മാലാഖ ms:Malaikat nl:Engel ja:天使 ce:Angela no:Engel nn:Engel pl:Anioł pt:Anjo ro:Înger qu:Killki ru:Ангел sq:Engjëlli scn:Àncilu (spìritu) simple:Angel sk:Anjel sl:Angel sr:Анђео sh:Anđeo fi:Enkeli sv:Ängel tl:Anghel ta:தேவதூதர் tt:Фәрештә te:దేవదూత th:ทูตสวรรค์ chr:ᎠᏂᏓᏪᎯ tr:Melek uk:Ангел vi:Thiên sứ wa:Andje bat-smg:Aniuols zh:天使